Population3 719 006 thousand people
Population density200,03 person/km2
Territory216 400 km2
Largest citiesSamarkand city
The climate of Samarkand region can be divided into two zones. Northern part and extreme West of the region belong to continental climate, and other parts (center, South and East) of the region is covered by subtropical inland climate. Both climates are represented by hot and dry summer with partly cold winter. The average annual temperature is +16.5 °C; average temperature in January is 0.2 °C, average temperature in July is +27.0 °C.
The absolute minimum temperature is -26 °C, absolute maximum temperature is +58 °C. The average annual rainfall in the district is 310-330 mm (main part of precipitation falls in spring and autumn). The vegetation period lasts 218-220 days.
The main river of the valley - Zarafshan, originating from glacier, feeds on snow and glacial waters. Therefore, the water regime of the river is quite stable, which ensures uniform operation of hydroelectric power stations throughout the year and eliminates risk of floods. For more efficient use of water, Kattakurgan reservoir was built in the middle reaches of Zarafshan, and Kuyumazar reservoir - in the lower reaches. Zarafshan flows into Kashkadarya region through Eskianhor channel. According to the degree of water use, no river in Central Asia can be compared with Zarafshan - 90% of them are spent on irrigation. Underground water in the district are close to surface, although they have less salt, they are not suitable for drinking.
Agriculture occupies a special place in Samarkand territorial-industrial complex. Agriculture provides 75% of gross agricultural output.The leading branch of agriculture is cotton. Tobacco, sesame, flax and safflower are grown from other industrial crops. Urgut fog is specialized in tobacco growing. It produces 96% of tobacco in the country.
High-grade wheat and barley are grown on rainfed lands. Horticulture and viticulture, included in cotton complex, have also reached a high level of development. Many different vegetables and melons are grown in shirkat farms and on homestead lands, located around the cities.